Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era in the United States of America was based on a series of laws, new constitutions, and practices in the South that were deliberately used to prevent black citizens from registering to vote and voting. These measures were enacted by the former Confederate states at the turn of the 20th century, and by Oklahoma when it gained statehood in 1907, although not by the former border slave states. Their actions were designed to frustrate the objective of the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1870, which sought to protect the suffrage of freedmen after the American Civil War.

During the later elections of Reconstruction era, beginning in the 1870s, white Democrats used violence by paramilitary groups, as well as fraud, to suppress black Republican voters and turn Republicans out of office. After regaining control of the state legislatures, Democrats were alarmed by a late 19th-century alliance between Republicans and Populists that cost them some elections. In North Carolina, for example, the Wilmington insurrection of 1898 (long called a race riot by whites) saw white Democrats launching a coup d’etat which overthrew the city government (the only coup of its kind in United States history), a duly elected biracial government headed by a white mayor; and widely attacked the black community, destroying lives and property. As a result, many blacks left the city permanently…

The political cartoon from the 1890s shows how African Americans were prevented from voting even after they were granted suffrage. The loopholes in the law exploited by people such as Senator Jillman

— Read on en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disenfranchisement_after_the_Reconstruction_Era

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The original architectural drawings for the proposed campuses of Duke University are true works of art, grand in scale and exquisite in detail. As was common they are unsigned with the only credit being in the name of the Philadelphia firm of Horace Trumbauer, Architect. The chief designer of the firm and draftsman, #JulianFAbele, in discussing the unique style of the drawings, once proudly proclaimed, “The shadows are all mine.” With that statement Abele unknowingly articulated a central fact of his life. As an African American, he lived in the shadows as time and circumstance conspired to conceal his considerable professional talent.

— Read on blackthen.com/did-you-know-that-a-black-man-was-the-chief-designer-of-the-original-architectural-drawings-for-duke-university/

“It is impossible to create a dual personality which will be on the one hand a fighting man toward the enemy, and on the other, a craven who will accept treatment as less than a man at home.”

The end of the Civil War marked a new era of racial terror and violence directed at black people in the United States that has not been adequately acknowledged or addressed in this country. Following emancipation in 1865, thousands of freed black men, women, and children were killed by white mobs, former slave owners, and members of the Confederacy who were unwilling to accept the anticipated end of slavery and racial subordination. The violent response to freedom for former slaves was followed by decades of racial terror lynchings and targeted violence designed to sustain white supremacy and racial hierarchy.

No one was more at risk of experiencing violence and targeted racial terror than black veterans who had proven their valor and courage as soldiers during the Civil War, World War I, and World War II. Because of their military service, black veterans were seen as a particular threat to Jim Crow and racial subordination. Thousands of black veterans were assaulted, threatened, abused, or lynched following military service.

— Read on eji.org/reports/online/lynching-in-america-targeting-black-veterans

Days before the 1960 election, Coretta Scott King received a call from then-candidate John F. Kennedy while her husband was in a Georgia jail, charged with trespassing after leading a sit-in demonstration against segregation in Atlanta. “This must be pretty hard on you, and I want to let you both know that I’m thinking about you and will do all I can to help,” Kennedy told her. The Democratic nominee’s brother and campaign manager, Robert Kennedy, called a DeKalb County Judge and successfully lobbied for Martin Luther King Jr.’s release.

The personal call and the timely intervention significantly bolstered Kennedy’s standing among black voters.

— Read on www.theatlantic.com/amp/article/476190/

There is a historical relationship between Nazism and white supremacy in the United States. Yet the recent resurgence of explicit racism, including the attack in Charlottesville, has been greeted by many with surprise.

But collective amnesia has consequences. When Americans celebrate the country’s victory in WWII, but forget that the U.S. armed forces were segregated, that the Red Cross segregated blood donors or that many black WWII veterans returned to the country only to be denied jobs or housing, it becomes all the more difficult to talk honestly about racism today.

— Read on www.smithsonianmag.com/history/why-african-american-soldiers-saw-world-war-ii-two-front-battle-180964616/

This is the model who has become an online sensation because of the color of her skin.
Her name is Lolita and unfortunately she calls herself the black Hannah Montana.
The young lady has a skin that is so dark that manypeople have compared it to charcoal.
Lolita is widely regarded to one of the world’s darkest models.
However, the young model has caught people’s fancy by her refusal to bleach her skin fair after declaring that “black is beautiful”
Black is Beautiful! And we need to stop comparing ourselves to the incomparable!
See the Super-Dark Model Who Has Caused a Stir Online With Her Viral Photos | How Africa News — Read on www.google.com/amp/s/howafrica.com/black-is-beautiful-see-the-super-dark-model-who-has-caused-a-stir-online-with-her-viral-photos/?amp

The dap is a gesture among African American men which expresses unity, strength, defiance or resistance. On the other hand the dap ist used as a complex language for communication. “The dap and the black power handshake, which evolved from the dap, were important symbols of black consciousness, identity, and cultural unity throughout black communities the world over!

— Read on fabianrottmann.wordpress.com/2016/11/14/photoblogging-five-on-the-black-hand-side-by-lamont-hamilton/amp/